|A Comprehensive Source of Nutritional Terms
BodybuildingPro.com Nutrition Database Nutrition Dictionary: A Comprehensive Source of Nutritional Terms
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Adenosine: A compound derived from nucleic acid, composed
of adenine and a sugar, D - ribose. Adenosine is the major
molecular component of the nucleotides adnosine monophosphate,
adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate and of the
nucleic acids deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid.
Adenosine Diphosphate: A product of the hydrolysis of
Amino Acids: Often called the
“building blocks of life,” amino acids are subunits
that join together in sequences to form protein. Amino acids are
named as such because they contain both an acid and an amine
chemical side unit.
Anorexia: Anorexia is a lack or loss of appetite, resulting
in the inability to eat. Anorexia may result from poorly prepared
or unattractive food or surroundings, unfavorable company, or
various physical and psychological cause.
Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder characterized by a prolonged
refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea, emotional
disturbance concerning body image, and an abnormal fear of becoming
obese. The condition is seen primarily in adolescents,
predominantly in girls, and is usually associated with emotional
stress or conflict, such as anxiety, irritation, anger and fear,
which may accompany a major change in the person’s life.
Treatment consists of measures to improve nourishment, followed by
therapy to overcome the underlying emotional conflicts.
Anorexiant: A drug or other agent that suppresses the
appetite, such as amphetamine, phentermine, diethylpropion,
fenfluramine, or dexfluramine.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): Hormone produced by the
posterior pituitary responsible for fluid and mineral conservation
in the mammalian body. Bodybuilders often take ADH blockers to
promote water loss in the days leading up to a bodybuilding
Antioxidants: Group of substances reputed to neutralize
harmful free radicals produced during cellular respiration.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): Your
body mass ratio, or the speed at which your resting body burns
calories to provide for its basic survival needs. You can elevate
your BMR and more easily achieve lean body mass through consistent
exercise, and particularly through aerobic workouts.
Body-Fat Percentage: The total percentage of fat weight in
an individual’s physique.
Cachexia: General ill health and malnutrition, marked by
weakness and emaciation, usually associated with serious
Calorie: The amount of energy necessary to raise one liter
or water one degree celsius. A bodybuilder’s maintenance
level of calories can be calculated relatively easily, then either
a caloric deficit (to lose body fat), or caloric surplus (to gain
muscle mass) can be initiated. The calorie content of most foods
are listed on the back of packaging.
Carbohydrate: A molecule
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It serves as the
body’s primary short - term fuel source.
Catabolic: Chemical reactions in the body where larger
units are broken down into smaller subunits. As an example, muscle
tissue may be broken down into protein strands which, in turn, may
be cleaved into individual amino acids.
Cheat Day: See Cheating.
Cheating: In nutritional terms, the word used to describe
not following your diet according to plan, or a day set out to
indulge yourself in food items not included in your pre-planned
diet (a cheat day). In training terms, The Cheating Method refers to deliberately compromising exercise form for the sake of some extra "beyond failure" reps.
Cholesterol: A type of fat
manufactured within the body but more often ingested from fatty
animal - source foods like beef, pork, eggs, and milk products.
Over the long term cholesterol can clog arteries and other blood
vessels, leading to stroke or heart attack.
Dehydration: Biological state
where the body has insufficient water levels for proper
functioning. As the human body is over 90 percent water, athletes
must continuously replenish the water lost during intense
Electrolytes: Charged atoms called ions which help regulate
the body’s various metabolic systems. Athletes regularly
consume drinks enriched with electrolytes such as potassium,
calcium, and sodium to replace those lost in sweat.
Endocrine System: The network of ductless glands and other
structures that elaborate and secrete hormones directly into the
bloodstream, affecting the function of specific target organs.
Glands of the endocrine system include the thyroid and the
parathyroid, the anterior pituitary, and the posterior pituitary,
the pancreas, the suprarenal glands, and the gonads.
Essential Amino Acids: The
nine amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must
be consumed in the diet.
Fat: A high energy molecule which
provides the body with long - term fuel reserves. Fat also serves
as a precursor for many hormones and offers the body varying
degrees of insulation and cushioning.
United States Food and Drug Administration.
Gluconeogenesis: The formation of glycogen from fatty acids
and proteins rather than carbohydrates.
Glucose: A simple sugar found
in certain foods, especially fruits, and a major source of energy
occurring in human and animal body fluids. Glucose, when ingested
or produced by the digestive hydrolysis of double sugars and
starches, is absorbed into the blood from the intestines. Excess
glucose in circulation is normally polymerized and stored in the
liver and muscles as glycogen, which is depolymerized to glucose
and liberated as needed.
Glycogen: Blood sugar stored in the muscles, liver, and to
a lesser extent the bloodstream. Glycogen helps to fuel muscle
Glycogenesis: The biomechanical process by which glucose is
converted into glycogen.
Glycogenolysis: The biomechanical process by which the
liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose for use as a
Glycolysis: A series of enzymatically catalyzed reactions,
occurring within cells, by which glucose and other sugars are
broken down to yield lactic acid or pyruvic acid, releasing energy
in the form of adenosine triphosphate. Aerobic glycolysis yields
pyruvic acid in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic glycolysis yields
Ketosis: Ketosis is the result of eating too little
carbohydrate. Being in ketosis tends to reduce your feelings of
hunger. Carbohydrate deprivation also causes dehydration. However,
there is a distinction between losing water and losing body fat,
although the two are sometimes confused. If your visit your doctor
or pharmacist they can test for ketosis. If upon testing for
ketosis, you realize that your body is deficit of carbohydrates, be
sure to increase the total intake of carbohydrates in your diet; do
not let your body go into a state of ketosis.
Lacto-vegetarian: A diet including both dairy products and
eggs, but excluding meat.
Lipolysis: The breakdown or destruction of lipids of
Lipolytic: The chemical breakdown of fat.
Metabolism: The sum total of all biochemical reactions that
take place in the human body. Metabolism can be divided into
anabolism and catabolism, the sum total which determines whether an
individual gains or loses weight.
Mineral: A naturally occurring inorganic element used for
the regulation of metabolism.
Nitrogen: A gaseous, nonmetallic element. Nitrogen is a
component of all proteins. Nitrogen is essential to the synthesis
of proteins the body must have, particularly nitrogen - containing
compounds or amino acids derived directly or indirectly from plant
food. The process of protein metabolism accounts for nitrogen
balance. When protein catabolism exceeds protein anabolism, a
negative nitrogen balance exists in the body. When protein
anabolism exceeds protein catabolism, a positive nitrogen balance
exists in the body.
Nutrition: The applied science
of eating for greater health, fitness, and muscular gains. Through
correct application of nutritional practices you can selectively
add muscle mass to your physique, or lose body fat, revealing your
full genetic potential, and achieving a very self gratifying
Ovo-vegetarian: A diet excluding all meat and dairy
products except eggs.
Pesco-vegetarian: A diet including dairy products, eggs and
fish, but excluding fowl and red meat.
Positive Nitrogen Balance: Biochemical state where nitrogen
levels are sufficiently high enough to allow protein synthesis to
occur. Positive nitrogen balance is one of the conditions
accelerated by the use of anabolic steroids.
Protein: General term used to
describe molecules composed of specific sequences of amino acids.
Protein is the body’s primary building material and while
small amounts can be manufactured, most must be consumed in the
Protein Drinks: Another option to maintain your total
protein intake for the day is to take the product in liquid form.
The most common are protein drinks available in small bottles,
generally 500 ml or less. They are moderately priced and
conveniently sized, making them very easy to drink whether at home
or at the gym.
Protein Metabolism: The processes whereby protein
foodstuffs are used by the body to make tissue proteins, together
with the processes of breakdown of tissue proteins in the
production of energy. Food proteins are first broken down into
amino acids, then absorbed into the bloodstream, and finally used
in body cells to form new proteins. Amino acids in excess of the
body’s needs may be converted by the liver enzymes into keto
acids and urea. The keto acids may be used as sources of energy via
the Krebs citric acid cycle, or they may be converted into glucose
or fat for storage. Urea is excreted in urine and sweat.
Saturated Fatty Acids: Fat
molecules that do not have double bonds between their carbon atoms
and are usually solid at room temperature. Saturated fats are
considered to play a major role in the development of
Sugar: Any of several water -
soluble carbohydrates. The two principal categories of sugards are
monosaccharides and disaccharides. A monosaccharide is a single
sugar such as glucose, fructose, or galactose. A disaccharide is a
doble sugar such as sucrose (table sugar) or lactose.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids: Fat
molecules which have double bonds between their carbon atoms are
usually liquid at room temperature. Generally speaking, as the
number of double bonds increase, the fat becomes more oily in
Vegan: A diet excluding all foods from animals, in any
form. Items such as milk, cheese, and eggs are excluded.
Vitamin: Organic compound used
by the body to regulate metabolism. Vitamins may be water - based
or fat - based.
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